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  • Location: Romania is a country in   Southeastern Europe

  • Bucharest time: Romania's time is the same as Eastern European Time (UTC +2.00). For a time zone map click  here .

  • Area:  238,391 km2

  • Population:  20,121,641 inhabitants

  • Capital city:  Bucharest

  • Official Language:  Romanian

  • Currency: Romanian Leu (RON) - currency exchange rate

  • Weather:  temperate and continental climate

  • Education in Romania  - Pre-university education is divided into thirteen grades (from 0 to 12). Compulsory schooling starts at age 6 and ends at age 17 (10th grade). Higher education starts at age 19 and is aligned with European higher education area: 3-year Bachelor'degree, 2-year Master's degree, 3-year Doctoral studies.



Romania is a country in Southeastern Europe . Its neighboring countries are: Hungary and Serbia to the West, Ukraine and the Republic of Moldova to the Northeast, and Bulgaria to the South.


To the East, Romania has a stretch of sea coast along the Black Sea . The country is located roughly in the lower basin of the Danube with almost all of the Danube Delta being located within its territory.



The Greek historian Herodotus was the one to record the earliest written evidence of people living in the territory of the present-day Romania in 513 BC. In one of his books, he describes a military confrontation between the tribal confederation of the Getae and the Persian Emperor Darius the Great during his campaign against the Scythians .

The Getae or the Dacians were a branch of Thracians that inhabited Dacia (corresponding to modern Romania , Moldova and northern Bulgaria ). The Dacian kingdom reached its maximum expansion during King Burebista , around 82 BC.

Later, historical sources mention several confrontations between the Dacians and the Roman Empire , with the latter defeating the former under Emperor Trajan in two campaigns stretching from 101 AD to 106 AD. As a result, the core of Dacian kingdom was turned into the Roman province of Dacia .

Because the province was rich in ores, and especially silver and gold, the Romans heavily colonized the province, but in the 3rd century AD, with the invasions of migratory populations such as the Goths , the Roman Empire was forced to pull out of Dacia in 270 AD.

Middle Ages

Between the 3 rd century AD and the 14 th century AD, Dacia was in turn invaded by several nomadic peoples, among which the Huns, the Gepids, the Avars, the Bulgarians, the Pechenegs, and the Cumans. To defend themselves against such invasions, the Romanian principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia were founded around 1310 and 1352, in the Souhern and Eastern parts of today's Romania , respectively.

Romanians lived in three distinct principalities: besides Wallachia and Moldavia , there was also Transylvania, in the Western part of today's Romania , which was a part of the Kingdom of Hungary between the 10 th -16 th centuries.


During the reign of Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul), the three Romanian principalities were for the first time united under a single rule. The unification lasted for less than a year and due to difficult historical conditions, the three principalities were separated again.


Moldavia and Wallachia were reunited as a result of elections held in the two principalities. Their inhabitants chose Alexandru Ioan Cuza as their common ruler. Bucharest , the capital of the former Wallachia, became the capital of Romania .


In the Treaty of Berlin, Romania was recognized as an independent state by the Great Powers.


At the end of the First World War, Romania achieved its greatest territorial extent, uniting all the historical Romanian territories (including Transylvania, Bessarabia and Bukovina ). Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina were again separated from Romania in 1940.


In 1947, Romania became a people's republic, under a Communist rule. Subsequently, it became a socialist republic during Nicolae Ceausescu's regime, which started in the late 1960's.

The Communist regime was overthrown as a result of the Romanian revolution of December 1989.

Present-day Romania

After the fall of the Communist regime, Romania adopted a new constitution and started intense economic and political reforms.

Romania joined NATO on March 29 , 2004 , and is also a member of the Latin Union , of the Francophonie and of OSCE .

On January 1, 2007, Romania joined the European Union. Moreover, Sibiu , a large city in Transylvania , was chosen as European Capital of Culture in 2007.



Romania 's land is made up of roughly equal mountainous, hilly and lowland territories. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of Romania , with fourteen of its mountain ranges reaching above the altitude of 2,000 meters. The highest mountain in Romania is The Moldoveanu Peak (2,544 m).


Apart from its mountains, Romanian is also known for its Black Sea resorts, as well as for the incredible landscapes in the Danube Delta, the best-preserved delta in Europe . Moreover, there are several renowned spas and health resorts spread throughout the country. The most famous are Baile Herculane, Baile Felix and Sovata.


All over the country there are unique places to visit: the medieval churches and monasteries in Northern Moldavia, the medieval castles of Transylvania, the cultural cities of Alba Iulia , Brasov , Bucharest , Cluj-Napoca , Iasi or Sibiu . The latter city has been designed as a European city of culture for the year 2007.


Means of transport

Due to its geographical position, all means of transport can be found in Romania : automotive transport, rail transport, air transport and maritime transport.


As far as air transport is concerned, there are public airports in several of the Romanian major cities, such as: Arad , Bacau , Baia Mare, Bucharest (2 airports), Cluj-Napoca , Constanta , Craiova , Iasi , Oradea , Satu Mare, Sibiu , Suceava, Targu-Mures, Timisoara and Tulcea.


As far as maritime transport is concerned, there are several Black Sea ports, ports on the Danube, as well as ports on the Danube-Black Sea Canal . The first category includes Constanta , Mangalia, Sulina and Navodari. The second category includes Galati , Braila , Tulcea, Giurgiu . The third category includes Cernavoda, Poarta Alba and Agigea.